The Object Teams Blog

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Posts Tagged ‘product line

Object Teams with Null Annotations

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The recent release of Juno M4 brought an interesting combination: The Object Teams Development Tooling now natively supports annotation-based null analysis for Object Teams (OT/J). How about that? 🙂

The path behind us

Annotation-based null analysis has been added to Eclipse in several stages:

Using OT/J for prototyping
As discussed in this post, OT/J excelled once more in a complex development challenge: it solved the conflict between extremely tight integration and separate development without double maintenance. That part was real fun.
Applying the prototype to numerous platforms
Next I reported that only one binary deployment of the OT/J-based prototype sufficed to upgrade any of 12 different versions of the JDT to support null annotations — looks like a cool product line
Pushing the prototype into the JDT/Core
Next all of the JDT team (Core and UI) invested efforts to make the new feature an integral part of the JDT. Thanks to all for this great collaboration!
Merging the changes into the OTDT
Now, that the new stuff was mixed back into the plain-Java implementation of the JDT, it was no longer applicable to other variants, but the routine merge between JDT/Core HEAD and Object Teams automatically brought it back for us. With the OTDT 2.1 M4, annotation-based null analysis is integral part of the OTDT.

Where we are now

Regarding the JDT, others like Andrey, Deepak and Aysush have beaten me in blogging about the new coolness. It seems the feature even made it to become a top mention of the Eclipse SDK Juno M4. Thanks for spreading the word!

Ah, and thanks to FOSSLC you can now watch my ECE 2011 presentation on this topic.

Two problems of OOP, and their solutions

Now, OT/J with null annotations is indeed an interesting mix, because it solves two inherent problems of object-oriented programming, which couldn’t differ more:

1.: NullPointerException is the most widespread and most embarrassing bug that we produce day after day, again and again. Pushing support for null annotations into the JDT has one major motivation: if you use the JDT but don’t use null annotations you’ll no longer have an excuse. For no good reasons your code will retain these miserable properties:

  • It will throw those embarrassing NPEs.
  • It doesn’t tell the reader about fundamental design decisions: which part of the code is responsible for handling which potential problems?

Why is this problem inherent to OOP? The dangerous operator that causes the exception is this:

right, the tiny little dot. And that happens to be the least dispensable operator in OOP.

2.: Objectivity seems to be a central property on any approach that is based just on Objects. While so many other activities in software engineering are based on the insight that complex problems with many stakeholders involved can best be addressed using perspectives and views etc., OOP forces you to abandon all that: an object is an object is an object. Think of a very simple object: a File. Some part of the application will be interested in the content so it can decode the bytes and do s.t. meaningful with it, another part of the application (maybe an underlying framework) will mainly be interested in the path in the filesystem and how it can be protected against concurrent writing, still other parts don’t care about either but only let you send the thing over the net. By representing the “File” as an object, that object must have all properties that are relevant to any part of the application. It must be openable, lockable and sendable and whatnot. This yields
bloated objects and unnecessary, sometimes daunting dependencies. Inside the object all those different use cases it is involved in can not be separated!

With roles objectivity is replaced by a disciplined form of subjectivity: each part of the application will see the object with exactly those properties it needs, mediated by a specific role. New parts can add new properties to existing objects — but not in the unsafe style of dynamic languages, but strictly typed and checked. What does it mean for practical design challenges? E.g, direct support for feature oriented designs – the direct path to painless product lines etc.

Just like the dot, objectivity seems to be hardcoded into OOP. While null annotations make the dot safe(r), the roles and teams of OT/J add a new dimension to OOP where perspectives can be used directly in the implementation. Maybe it does make sense, to have both capabilities in one language 🙂 although one of them cleans up what should have been sorted out many decades ago while the other opens new doors towards the future of sustainable software designs.

The road ahead

The work on null annotations goes on. What we have in M4 is usable and I can only encourage adopters to start using it right now, but we still have an ambitious goal: eventually, the null analysis shall not only find some NPEs in your program, but eventually the absense of null related errors and warnings shall give the developer the guarantee that this piece of code will never throw NPE at runtime.

What’s missing towards that goal:

  1. Fields: we don’t yet support null annotations for fields. This is next on our plan, but one particular issue will require experimentation and feedback: how do we handle the initialization phase of an object, where fields start as being null? More on that soon.
  2. Libraries: we want to support null specifications for libraries that have no null annotations in their source code.
  3. JSR 308: only with JSR 308 will we be able to annotate all occurrences of types, like, e.g., the element type of a collection (think of List)

Please stay tuned as the feature evolves. Feedback including bug reports is very welcome!

Ah, and one more thing in the future: I finally have the opportunity to work out a cool tutorial with a fellow JDT committer: How To Train the JDT Dragon with Ayushman. Hope to see y’all in Reston!

Written by Stephan Herrmann

December 20, 2011 at 22:32

Mix-n-match language support

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I’ve been involved in the release of different versions of the JDT lately, supporting different flavors of Java.

Classical release management

At the core we have the plain JDT, of which we published the 3.7.0 release in June and right now first release candidates are being prepared towards the 3.7.1 service release, which will be the first official release to support Java 7. At the same time the first milestones towards 3.8 are being built. OK, this is almost normal business — with the exception of the service release differs more than usual from its base release, due to the unhappy timing of the release of Java 7 vs. Eclipse 3.7.

So that’s 3 versions in 2 month’s time.

First variant: Object Teams

The same release plan is mirrored by the Object Teams releases 2.0.0, 2.0.1RC1, 2.1.0M1. Merging the delta from JDT 3.7 to 3.7.1 into the OTDT was a challenge, given that this delta contained the full implementation of all that’s new in Java 7. Still with the experience of regularly merging JDT/Core changes into the OT variant, the pure merging was less than one day plus a couple more days until all 50000+ tests were green again. The nice thing about the architecture of the OTDT: after merging the JDT/Core, I was done. Since all other adaptations of the JDT are implemented using OT/Equinox adopting, e.g., all the new quick assists for Java 7 required a total of zero minutes integration time.

I took the liberty of branching 2.0.x and 2.1 only after integrating the Java 7 support, which also means that 2.1 M1 has only a small number of OT-specific improvements that did not already go into 2.0.1.

This gives 6 versions of the JDT in 2 month’s time.

Prototyping annotation based null analysis

As I wrote before, I’m preparing a comprehensive new feature for the JDT/Core: static analysis for potential NullPointerException based on annotations in the code. The latest patch attached to the bug had almost 3000 lines. Recent discussions at ECOOP made me change my mind in a few questions, so I changed some implementation strategies. Luckily the code is well modularized due to the use of OT/Equinox.

Now came the big question: against which version of the JDT should I build the null-annotation add-on? I mean, which of the 6 versions I have been involved in during the last 2 months?

As I like a fair challenge every now and then I decided: all six, i.e., I wanted to support adding the new static analysis to all six JDT versions mentioned before.

Integration details

Anybody who has worked on a Java compiler will confirm: if you change one feature of the compiler chances are that any other feature can be broken by the change (I’m just paraphrasing: “it’s complex”). And indeed, applying the nullity plug-in to the OTDT caused some headache at first, because both variants of the compiler make specific assumptions about the order in which specific information is available during the compilation process. It turned out that two of these assumptions where simply incompatible, so I had to make some changes (here I made the null analysis more robust).

At the point where I thought I was done, I tripped over an ugly problem that’s intrinsic to Java.
The nullity plug-in adapts a method in the JDT/Core which contains the following switch statement:

        while ((token = this.scanner.getNextToken()) != TerminalTokens.TokenNameEOF) {
                IExtendedModifier modifier = null;
                switch(token) {
                        case TerminalTokens.TokenNameabstract:
                                modifier = createModifier(Modifier.ModifierKeyword.ABSTRACT_KEYWORD);
                        case TerminalTokens.TokenNamepublic:
                                modifier = createModifier(Modifier.ModifierKeyword.PUBLIC_KEYWORD);
                        // more cases

I have a copy of this method where I only added a few lines to one of the case blocks.
Compiles fine against any version of the JDT. But Eclipse hangs when I install this plugin on top of a wrong JDT version. What’s wrong?

The problem lies in the (internal) interface TerminalTokens. The required constants TokenNameabstract etc. are of course present in all versions of this interface, however the values of these constants change every time the parser is generated anew. If constants were really abstractions that encapsulate their implementation values, all would be fine, but the Java byte code knows nothing about such an abstraction, all constant values are inlined during compilation. In other words: the meaning of a constant depends solely on the definitions which the compiler sees during compilation. Thus compiling the above switch statement hardcodes a dependency on one particular version of the interface TerminalTokens. BAD.

After recognizing the problem, I had to copy some different versions of the interface into my plug-in, implement some logic to translate between the different encodings and that problem was solved.

What’s next?

Nothing is next. At this point I could apply the nullity plug-in to all six versions of the JDT and all are behaving well.

We indeed have 12 versions of the JDT in 2 month’s time.


Would you like Java with our without the version 7 enhancements (stable release or milestone)? May I add some role and team classes? How about a dash more static analysis? It turns out we have more than just one product, we have a full little product line with features to pick or opt-out:


Java 6

Java 7

Indigo SR1

Juno M1
no null annotations

Plain JDT






with null annotations

Plain JDT







Just make your choice 🙂
Happy hacking with null annotations and try-with-resources in OT/J.

EclipseCon Europe 2011  

BTW: if you want to hear a bit more about the work on null annotations, you should really come to EclipseCon Europe — why not drop a comment at this submission 🙂

Written by Stephan Herrmann

August 19, 2011 at 17:22