The Object Teams Blog

Adding team spirit to your objects.

Posts Tagged ‘dimensions

The Essence of Object Teams

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When I write about Object Teams and OT/J I easily get carried away indulging in cool technical details. Recently in the Object Teams forum we were asked about the essence of OT/J which made me realize that I had neglected the high-level picture for a while. Plus: this picture looks a bit different every time I look at it, so here is today’s answer in two steps: short and extended.

Short version:

OT/J adds to OO the capability to define a program in terms of multiple perspectives.

Extended version:

In software design, e.g., we are used to describing a system from multiple perspectives or views, like: structural vs. behavioral views, architectural vs. implementation views, views focusing on distribution vs. business logic, or just: one perspective per use case.

A collage of UML diagrams

© 2009, Kishorekumar 62, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

In regular OO programming this is not well supported, an object is defined by exactly one class and no matter from which perspective you look at it, it always has the exact same properties. The best we can do here is controlling the visibility of methods by means of interfaces.

A person is a person is a person!?

By contrast, in OT/J you start with a set of lean base objects and then you may attach specific roles for each perspective. Different use cases and their scenarios can be implemented by different roles. Visualization in the UI may be implemented by another independent set of roles, etc.

A base seen from multiple perspectives via roles.

Code-level comparison?

I’ve been asked to compare standard OO and OT/J by direct comparison of code examples, but I’m not sure if it is a good idea to do, because OT/J is not intended to just provide a nicer syntax for things you can do in the same way using OO. OT/J – as any serious new programming language should do IMHO – wants you to think differently about your design. For example, we can give an educational implementation of the Observer pattern using OT/J, but once you “think Object Teams” you may not be interested in the Observer pattern any more, because you can achieve basically the same effect using a single callin binding as shown in our Stopwatch example.

So, positively speaking, OT/J wants you to think in terms of perspectives and make the perspectives you would naturally use for describing the system explicit by means of roles.

OTOH, a new language is of course only worth the effort if you have a problem with existing approaches. The problems OT/J addresses are inherently difficult to discuss in small examples, because they are:

  1. software complexity, e.g., with standard OO finding a suitable decomposition where different concerns are not badly tangled with each other becomes notoriously difficult.
  2. software evolution, e.g., the initial design will be challenged with change requests that no-one can foresee up-front.

(Plus all the other concerns addressed)

Both, theory and experience, tell me that OT/J excels in both fields. If anyone wants to challenge this claim using your own example, please do so and post your findings, or lets discuss possible designs together.

One more essential concept

I should also mention the second essence in OT/J: after slicing elements of your program into roles and base objects we also support to re-group the pieces in a meaningful way: as roles are contained in teams, those teams enable you to raise the level of abstraction such that each user-relevant feature, e.g., can be captured in exactly one team, hiding all the details inside. As a result, for a high-level design view you no longer have to look at diagrams of hundreds of classes but maybe just a few tens of teams.

Hope this helps seeing the big picture. Enough hand-waving for today, back to the code! 🙂


Written by Stephan Herrmann

September 20, 2011 at 15:39

Object Teams Final 0.7.0

with 4 comments

On a day like this (2010/07/07), it should be evident what is better than one or a few stars: a strong team!

But when you look at what happens in your software at runtime, all you see is a soup of individuals (called objects) running around all over the place (remember: standard module systems do not create boundaries around runtime objects!).

In all humbleness, are you surprised to learn that it was a German invention back in 2002, that objects should team up?

As a consequence of that idea, today – 8 years later –
the Object Teams Development Tooling 0.7.0 is released!
(supersedes version 1.4.0 from

Object Teams banner

This is the first release after the move of the project from to, at what point it is time to express a big thank you to all who helped along the way, Mentors, EMO, Legal, the Tools-PMC, and – of course – the many Contributors. This is: a team-effort!

Now you might say: that’s a pretty scattered team: some people at the Eclipse Foundation in Ottawa, some students in Berlin, people from Austin, and where-not. But that’s actually the point about a team: you start from a set of individuals who initially do not necessarily have any particular relationship. Then you create a team where each individual takes one particular role. This means you further specialize these existing individuals (you don’t want a team of 11 goal keepers, would you? Even with a Manual Neuer giving a perfect forward pass, it takes a Miroslav Klose to make the goal). And then you unite all members of the team towards a common goal, giving the team a new identity, so that team acts like one.

Still, each team member brings into the team the strengths of his particular background, meaning: the individuals do not completely disappear, but some properties of the individuals shine through when they play their roles in the team.

Now, what’s that got to do with software?

Given you already have a core of an application implemented, and now it’s your task to implemented one or two more user stories on top of the existing code. You look at the existing classes and mark those that in some way or other are related to what you need to implement. One user story relates to all classes marked red, another one to those marked greenish etc (and do expect overlap):

How do you implement the user story that involves all the red classes, such that the new implementation sits in a nice new module that concentrates on only this one task/user story?

Consider the red entities as plain individuals, they don’t know about the new task they should contribute to. Also keep in mind, that not all instances of those red classes will participate in the new user story. What we need to do is: specialize a few of those individuals so they can play particular roles wrt the new task and unite those roles within a new team.

If you live in flat-land, this is tremendously difficult, but if you’re able to just add one more dimension to the picture …

… the solution is very straight forward:


  • The implementation of the red user story is a strong, cohesive Teamteam
  • Its members are Roleroles specialized in their particular sub-tasks.
  • Each role relates () to one individual from the application core and specializes what is already given towards what the team requires.
  • How exactly each role relates to its base is declared using two kinds of atomic bindings: callout and callin method bindings (see, e.g., this post).
  • These roles only affect the system as long as the team context is active, and activation happens per team instance (with options for fine-tuning).
  • Other teams may be formed for other purposes / user stories (see the greenish team)
  • Even if you start already with this 3-D picture, with Object Teams you can always add one more dimension to your architecture, if needed.
Free your mind, no limits to modularity, if only you allow your objects to form strong, and hopefully successful, teams.

And now, go get it, do the quick-start or try some examples.

Enjoy the Game!

Written by Stephan Herrmann

July 7, 2010 at 14:31